The efficiency of fluid flow in porous media is critical to many energy and environmentally relevant operations, including oil and gas production, geothermal energy, gas-hydrate-bearing sediment, and geologic carbon sequestration. The fluid flow in porous media under a high hydraulic gradient may either deform the solid skeleton or cause the rearrangement of its structure. In this manuscript, a comprehensive experimental study on the poroelastic deformation during the repetitive fluid flow is presented. Soft hydrogel grains are used in this study to facilitate the poroelastic deformation during the fluid flow. And different combinations of fluids are employed to simulate both single- and two-phase fluid flow with various levels of viscosity, miscibility, and flow rate. It is observed that the viscosity of the fluids, the viscosity contrast, and miscibility feature between the invading and defending fluids play an important role in the poroelastic deformation and fluid propagation. Different particle rearrangements (self-evolution) and its relaxation times are also observed during the repetitive injection of different fluids. The comparison between the seepage and viscous forces can help to predict the shape of poroelastic deformation and whether or not solid grains would rearrange effectively in a given time.

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