Hazards and Risk


  • a dangerous condition, either potential or inherent, which can interfere with the expected, orderly progress of a given activity

  • a measured or calculated chance of exposure to hazard(s) which may or may not result in loss

Both should be managed!

Accidents and Incidents


  • an unplanned and therefore unwanted or undesired event resulting in physical harm and/or property damage

  • an unplanned event that did not but could have resulted in physical harm and/or property damage

Both should be investigated!

Hazard Identification

  • Acceleration

  • Corrosion

  • Chemical Replacement

  • Fire

  • Electrical

    • Shock

    • Thermal

    • Inadvertent Activation

    • Power Source Failure

    • Electromagnetic Radiation

  • Contamination

  • Chemical Dissociation

  • Oxidation (other than air)

  • Explosion

  • Heat & Temperature

    • High Temperature

    • Low Temperature

    • Temperature Variation

  • Leakage

  • Pressure

    • High

    • Low

    • Rapid Changes

  • Moisture

    • High Humidity

    • Low Humidity

  • Stress Reversal

  • Vibration and Noise

  • Toxicity

  • Radiation

    • Thermal (IR)

    • Electromagnetic (RF)

    • Ionizing

    • Ultraviolet (UV)

  • Weather / Environment

  • Shock

  • Stress Concentration

  • Structural Damage or Failure

Where to Look for Hazards

  • Machines

  • Lifting Equipment

  • Facility Design

  • Confined Spaces

  • Fire Considerations

  • Biological

  • Ergonomic

  • Energy

  • Chemicals

  • Pressure Vessels

  • Electrical

HAZARDS CAN BE ANYWHERE! Who should be looking for them?

Hazard Reduction Measures

  • Design Feature

  • Safety Device or Feature

  • Warning Device

  • Procedure and Training

It may require some serious thinking before the best approach is determined

Hazard Identification and Closed-Loop Tracking System

  • Hazard Identification

    • Know your requirements!

    • Inspection, Audit & Identification Program

      • Checklists

    • Procedures and Training

  • Corrective Action Plan

    • Individual and completion date must be assigned

  • Must be Closed-Loop


Look at past accidents for your first step in Accident Reduction.

  • Were prior hazards adequately resolved?

  • What work controls were implemented to prevent recurrence, and are they working?

Five Sources of Accidents

  • People

  • Equipment

  • Material

  • Procedures

  • Work Environment

Note: There are typically multiple sources; rarely does a single source result in an accident.

The Domino Effect

Failure "here" may cause failure "there"

  • Cause and effect relationship

  • Five Phases of accident process

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