The interaction of a breaking wave and a vertical seawall with a recurved parapet attached is investigated using a three-dimensional parallel model based on a constrained interpolation profile (CIP); the model is accelerated by high-performance computation using the message passing interface algorithm and open multiprocessing algorithm. The Navier– Stokes equations are solved using the projection method. A high-order finite difference method, the CIP method, is applied for the convection term. In a volume of fluid method, the tangent of hyperbola for interface capturing with a slope weighting method is used to simulate the variation of the free surface. Numerical results are compared with the experimental results, and good agreement is obtained. The wave impact pressures on the vertical seawall attached with the recurved parapet are accurately predicted. Moreover, the large deformation of the wave profiles of the transient wave impact process is finely simulated, which can help us better assess the reliability and survivability of these structures in the presence of extreme loads.


As the global climate warms and sea levels continue to rise, it is very important to reduce the damage of overtopping and slamming load to the vertical seawall in extreme events. A sea-facing overhang structure, the so-called recurved parapet, can be attached to a new or existing vertical seawall. The overhang structure, which forces the upward rushing water and towering waves to curl toward the sea, can release the energy of the waves back into the sea and reduce the damage to the structure. This process involves problems such as wave breaking, air trapping, and wave slamming (Ravindar et al., 2019). How to accurately predict the impact load and wave climb is a challenging topic both for the effectiveness of numerical models and for the accuracy of physical experiments (Liu et al., 2020).

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