The paper considers the main factors influencing the height of ice rubble pile formed during the interaction of ice and an inclined structure. The main factors determining the development of ice rubble pile against an obstacle are presented. The article suggests the mechanisms of destruction of ice cover with a pile-up upon contact with a structure of various inclination angles. For an inclination angle lying between two extreme events (horizontal and vertical walls), the maximum height of ice rubble pile causing destruction of ice cover was estimated. The models of free-flowing media are considered to describe shifting of a pile-up along a certain surface, including the surface of the structure. The paper studies the mechanism of ice rubble pile stability loss and the process of partial overhanging of destroyed ice outside the structure. It is demonstrated that loss of stability is one of the main factors limiting the height of ice rubble pile.


Virtually any fixed obstacle hindering ice drift is considered to be the source of the ice rubble pile formation. Drifting ice coming into contact with fast ice can lead to formation of ice rubble piles or an ice hummock. Such processes are often marked with formation of extended ridges of ice hummock, and sometimes areas of uniformly ridged ice. The mechanism of piling up formation is considered in several papers (Palmer, 2013; Wong and Brown, 2018; Sazonov, 2005) etc. It is also possible that an ice hummock that has settled on the bottom of a shallow can provoke the formation of a stamukha, the size of which is far bigger than the size of a hummock that initiates it (Sigitov et al., 2019).

From a practical point of view, ice rubble piles (sometimes quite massive ones) in front of marine engineering structures of various purposes are of the greatest concern. One of the examples is represented by the Prirazlomnaya ice-resistant platform in the Barents Sea (Karulin et al., 2018). Fig. 1 shows the ice accumulation on the side of this platform.

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