In order to study the combination effect of wind load and wave load on sea-crossing bridges, the observation data of wind and wave near the bridge site and the inversion data of wind and wave calculated by numerical model are used to fit the characteristic values of wind speed, wave height and wave period in the 100-year return period using the optimal marginal and three-dimensional joint probability distributions. Based on the empirical load calculation mode, the reasonable combination coefficient of the wind-wave load is given. It is also verified that the wind-wave load calculated by the canonical mode are conservative.


With the promotion of China's Belt and Road Initiative, the domestic sea-crossing bridges with more deep-water and long-span has seen a peak of development, which connect the mainland and islands (Yang, 2010). Marine environment is often complicated by strong wind, wave and rapid flow, which gradually become the control load in sea-crossing bridge engineering design (Fang, 2016; Xu, 2016). Long span cable-stayed or suspension bridge is often adopted in the construction of sea-crossing bridges. Due to the large-scale foundation structure, the increased flexibility of the main span and the small stiffness of the bridge structure, the dynamic response of the whole bridge is obvious under the wind and wave loads. At the same time, there is no method for the combination of wind and wave loads on ocean bridges in the domestic industry specifications, and there is a lack of mature engineering experience. It is imperative to study on the combination of the wind and wave loads on sea-crossing bridges.

In the past, researchers from different countries have conducted extensive discussions on the wind and wave loads on the marine structure. Fang et al. (2019) investigated the impact of the combination of the wind and wave loads on the sea-crossing bridge, the joint committee on structural safety (JCSS) combination model was used to combine the wind and wave loads considering the correlations among wind, wave and flow. The Gumbel joint probability model was adopted for the correlation of wind and wave. Li et al. (2007) put forward the engineering calculation method of wind and wave loads, according to the actual situation of a construction trestle in Hangzhou Bay. Guo et al. (2016) studied the dynamic response of portal bridge tower under the coupling action of wind, wave and flow using physical model tests. At present, most of the existing studies focus on offshore platforms, fans, trestles or bridge towers (Wang, 2017; Morato, 2017), and few studies focus on the dynamic performance of full-span bridges under the action of the wind, wave and flow.

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