In this study, various mooring analyses were carried out to verify the safety of Floating LNG Bunkering Terminal (FLBT) mooring design during its design life. Target operating filed is located approximately 15km offshore of Busan, Korea. Water depth of the target field is 119m. Harsh environments have been considered due to strong tropical cyclones and rapid current in Korea Strait. Mooring model test was performed in the ocean engineering basin at the Korean Research Institute of Ships & Ocean Engineering (KRISO). Assessments of mooring system using the commercial software, Orcaflex, were carried out for various environmental conditions, after a series of validations through the comparisons with previous results of the model test.


The introduction of stringent norms by the International Maritime Organization under MARPOL Annex VI will increase the penetration of LNG across the bunker market. LNG as an alternative fuel for Shipping has been increasingly adopted as a strategy for environmental compliance, either sailing or at ports. With an immediate significant impact on the reduction of Sulphur Oxides emissions (SOx), Particulate Matter (PM), and also of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) the motivations for the use of LNG as a fuel in maritime transport are today highly favored by a relevant multi-layered regulatory frame.

The paradigm shift from conventional fuel to eco-friendly fuel with an aim to reduce airborne emissions will drive the global LNG bunkering market size. LNG bunkering is the method of refueling ships adopting LNG as marine fuel. LNG can be refueled to LNG fueled vessels. The method of fueling includes TTS(truck-to-ship, PTS(port-to-ship or pipeline-to-ship) and STS(ship-to-ship). TTS method needs relatively low initial investment to establish business readiness. However, TTS method is limited to small scale bunkering due to low capacity, flowrates and movement of bunker trucks. PTS method needs stable and long-term demand. PTS method can be difficult unless pre-established contract exists. On the other hand, ship-to-ship(STS) is a favorable option for LNG bunkering, especially for ships with short port turnaround time. STS method does not interfere with cargo/passenger handling operation. Simultaneous Operations (SIMOPS) concept is favored.

This study is a part of a research project funded by a Korean government to develop the technologies for floating offshore LNG bunkering system. The research project is aimed to develop design, operation technology, and core equipment for FLBT(Floating LNG bunkering terminal). The FLBT with 220K CBM(m3) LNG containment is operating with 170K class LNG Carrier and 30K or less LNG bunkering shuttle in consideration of simultaneous loading and unloading by STS method.

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