In marine disaster prevention, the impact of typhoon is the most important factor, especially the strong wind and extreme wave caused by typhoon. The numerical simulation of wind and wave fields has become an important way to analyze the ocean conditions. In order to investigate the impact of typhoon on southeast coastal areas of China, this study simulated the wind and wave fields during the Typhoon Soulik in July 2013, which gradually developed into a super typhoon from a tropical storm in the northwestern Pacific. Meanwhile, the adaptation and performance vary from different typhoon wind field models during the same typhoon process. In this study, several typical typhoon wind field models including Jelesnianski-Ⅰ model, Jelesnianski-Ⅱ model and Holland model are described and applied to the Typhoon Soulik. In order to furtherly verify the reliability of the typhoon wind field models, the spectral wave model SWAN with the spatial resolution of 0.1°×0.1° and the temporal step of 1 hour is used to simulate wave fields with different input wind fields from the above typhoon wind field models. Data from three observation buoys of Fujian Province are used to validating the accuracy of simulated wind speed and significant wave height as well as examining the adaptation of the typhoon wind field models. The results show that the wind and wave fields simulated by the three kind of models are roughly consistent with the observed data, with the wind speed reaching 30 m/s and significant wave height reaching 6 m in coastal area. The key parameters of typhoon wind field such as maximum wind speed and Radius of Maximum Wind (RMW) are also compared and analyzed.
Typhoon disaster is a major natural hazard on marine environment. The accompanied hurricane could destroy the ocean infrastructures and storm tide is gradually produced to inundate the coastal areas. In extreme marine conditions, it will bring serious consequences on both economic and human life. It was reported that, in July 2013, the super typhoon 'Soulik' caused approximately $100 million in financial loss. To prevent such hazards, many research efforts have been paid. Estimation of wind field is one of the major and direct approach. Although, the satellite observation data during the typhoon process is accessible, the estimation accuracy of the typhoon center wind field is not acceptable. Therefore, the background wind field (satellite data) and the parametric model wind field (model-generated wind fields) are coupled to perform the wind field estimation (Dong et al., 2019; Dong et al., 2020). Researches about parametric tropical cyclone wind field models are prevalent. As far as the sea surface wind field models, there are two main categories. One is the theoretical model, based on the gradient balance of sea surface pressure (Fujita, 1952; Myers, 1957), and the solution of the kinematic (Russell, 1969, 1971; Batts et al.,1980; Georgiou, 1985; Lee and Rosowsky, 2007) or dynamic equations (Chow, 1971) is required. The other is empirical wind field model, assuming that the typhoon surface wind field is distributed in terms of a certain rule (Jelesnianski, 1965; Jelesnianski, 1966), which is widely accepted for its simplicity and convenience in calculation. However, the regional characters of those empirical models should be considered. Owing to the temporal and regional variations, the related parameters are difficult to be determined, which will influence the estimation accuracy (Vickery and Wadhera, 2008; Fang et al., 2018b). Therefore, for the target region, different wind field models with the corresponding parameters are required to be developed and evaluated, from which the most proper one can be acquired.