Marine operations traditionally have been managed by professional mariners whose years of experience and training have prepared them for that responsibility. The science of artificial intelligence (Al) has made possible the development of computer programs used in monitoring, controlling and simulating the behavior of fully automated vessels. The advent of such programs means that, in the future, ships will be operated by a combination of human and machine intelligence. This paper is intended as a brief review of the subject of expert systems (ES), a branch of Al technology, and as a survey of its current maritime applications.

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