This paper provides an overview of the PISA design model recently developed for laterally loaded offshore wind turbine monopiles through a major European joint-industry academic research project, the PISA Project. The focus was on large diameter, relatively rigid piles, with low length to diameter (L/D) ratios, embedded in clay soils of different strength characteristics, sand soils of different densities and in layered soils combining clays and sands. The resulting design model introduces new procedures for site specific calibration of soil reaction curves that can be applied within a one-dimensional (1D), Winkler-type, computational model. This paper summarises the results and key conclusions from PISA, including design methods for (a) stiff glacial clay till (Cowden till), (b) brittle stiff plastic clay (London clay), (c) soft clay (Bothkennar clay), (d) sand of varying densities (Dunkirk), and, (e) layered profiles (combining soils from (a) to (d)). The results indicate that the homogeneous soil reaction curves applied appropriately for layered profiles in the 1D PISA design model provide a very good fit to the three-dimensional finite element (3D FE) calculations, particularly for profiles relevant to current European offshore wind farm sites. Only a small number of cases, involving soft clay, very dense sand and L/D = 2 monopiles, would appear to require more detailed and bespoke analysis.

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