In response to the highly volatile industry situation post-Covid19, E&P companies are abandoning or delaying exploration projects. It is anticipated that to meet growing energy demand in the future, it would require robust reservoir surveillance to improve individual well productivity. Production logging plays a key role in developing reservoir flow characterization and its integration with multiple data sources can allow for a holistic well dynamic description, leading to production enhancement on a well-by-well basis. Multiple case studies are presented in this work that propose a data-driven, integrated workflow which combines production logging data with plethora of under-utilized data sources to constitute an investigative analysis to solve water production conundrum.
The workflow developed as part of this work incorporates three distinct stages. Firstly, an in-depth data analysis is conducted utilizing all historical production data/trends and well events to link it with water production as each will have its distinct impact on the type of production logging tools/techniques that would be deployed on the subject well to achieve job objectives. Secondly, real-time production logging is conducted to ensure job objectives as defined in stage one is being met which is crucial to the resultant wellbore zonal profiling. Finally, once the production log visual representation is created, various other open-hole petrophysical and cased-hole well integrity logs are analyzed to make sense of the derived results and suggest reasoning to the state of the reservoir production pertaining to producing water. The case studies discussed in this paper include the use of petrophysical logs, MDT formation testing data, ultrasonic cement evaluation logs, and production log time-lapse analysis.
Integrating various data sources with production log analysis allowed for establishment of water production sources in the various case studies discussed. In one case, production related ambiguity was resolved by integrating formation testing and production logging data together. Another analysis revealed channeling behind the casing through a micro-channel in the cement which caused water to encroach shallow perforations. This highlighted the importance of azimuthal cement logging to detect small channels even when omni-directional sonic measurements are depicting good cement placement. Finally, through integrated time-lapse production log analysis, it was discovered how wellbore dynamics were changing chronologically.