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Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, May 6–9, 2019
Paper Number: OTC-29329-MS
... that offshore industries will be a major contributor. offshore technology conference continental shelf pre-contact site consultant outer continental shelf florida water column landscape submerged pre-contact site us government submerged landscape early people sea-level curve archaeology...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, May 6–9, 2019
Paper Number: OTC-29629-MS
... Abstract This paper describes a marine turbine concept specifically designed to harness the energy from the Gulf Stream Current. This current achieves, at some points off the East coast of Florida, a speed that ranges between 2 and 4 knots in the first 100m of water depth, for 85% of the time...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, May 4–7, 2015
Paper Number: OTC-25965-MS
... Abstract To assist in the development of mooring and foundation solutions for ocean current based electricity production, an overview of the resource and seafloor characteristics in three potential power production regions are presented. These regions are offshore Florida USA, North Carolina...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, May 3–6, 2010
Paper Number: OTC-20559-MS
... Abstract Florida Atlantic University, in collaboration with Lockheed Martin, has performed an ocean thermal resource assessment off Florida's Southeast coast. Thermal properties in the Straits of Florida are characterized using a series of at-sea measurements and site specific single plant...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, April 30–May 3, 2007
Paper Number: OTC-18510-MS
... Abstract The first AUV survey across five fields of deep-water coral mounds in the Straits of Florida reveals an unexpected high abundance and variability of mounds in water depths of 590 - 875 m. A drop camera and a series of dives with the Johnson- Sea-Link submersible confirmed living...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, May 1–4, 1995
Paper Number: OTC-7674-MS
...mOTC 7674 Late Quaternary Sequence Stratigraphy, South Florida Margin S. D. Locker and A, C, Hine, Department of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St, Petersburg, FL, Copyright 1995, Offshore Technology Conference This paper was presented at the 27th Annual OTC in Houston, Texas, U. S.A...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, May 4–7, 1992
Paper Number: OTC-6871-MS
... borehole debris sediment well site gainesville area block 707 drilling equipment grouper us government otc 6871 florida transect drilling debris offshore eastern gulf upstream oil & gas dive observer center point video continental shelf associate mOTC 6871 Impact...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, May 1–4, 1989
Paper Number: OTC-6110-MS
... be developed or the mineral resource will remain undeveloped. A successful borehole mining test program for extraction of these deep phosphate resources was conducted in northeast Florida in 1984-1985. Based on the results of this test program, plus subsequent laboratory testing, and engineering studies...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, May 5–8, 1986
Paper Number: OTC-5198-MS
... have been publ ished for the ACS. The ACS defined by the shoreline and the 200-m isobath, varies in width for the modern U.S. coastline from a fract i on of a kil ometer near the Florida Keys to about 150 km offshore of Cape Cod, MA. Inasmuch as sea-l evel fl uctuated broadly over the span of geologic...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, April 30–May 3, 1979
Paper Number: OTC-3519-MS
... Annuai OTC in Houston, Tex., April 30·May 3, 1979. The material is subject to correction by the author. Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words. ABSTRACT The initial phase of a survey evaluating the feasibility of placing a pipeline between the eastern Florida coast...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, May 2–5, 1976
Paper Number: OTC-2517-MS
...< nTr 7K77 ULJ hIW141TJIIW un~~k~l!ku I WI. VI ! eJJv Iib Uvwtlul 11. ALe Vtu 601! and bench mark description sheets prepared. tools since they cover relatively large areas of the coast and provide considerable ground de- The five most commonly used tidal datums tail. Selected bench marks and horizontal con- are: mean-lower-low-water, mean-low-water, mean- trol points are shown for convenience in re- sea-level, mean-high-water, and mean-higher-high- lating to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum water. As an example of datum determination, and tidal datum elevation descriptions. the mean-low-water datum is the arithmetic mean of the low water heights observed over a speci- The accuracy with which tidal datum inter- fied 19-year cycle at a given location. sections are located can be critical, particu- larly in near-flat and marsh areas. For example, Bench Marks. These~re permanent monuments, in- an error of 0.1 foot in datum location along a stalled in the ground and on structures-near--a beach with a 1° slope (00-34 ) can result in a tide station, to which the tide staff elevation variation of 10 feet in the boundary line de- of the station is referenced by surveying (see marcation. In some cases the horizontal dis- Figure 3). To provide permanency, as many as 10 placement error could involve many acres of bench marks may be installed. Information and shoreline property. It could also-involve large elevations are shown on tidal bench mark descrip- areas of valuable submerged lands, since off- tion sheets. A significant aspect of the use of shore boundaries are measured from tidal datum a tidal datum as a marine boundary is the accu- base lines. racy and consistency of recovery. Even if bench marks are destroyed, it is possible to recover MARINE BOUNDARY AND TIDAL DATUM SURVEY PLAN the same datum from a short series of tidal ob- servations with remarkable accuracy. To meet the requirement for more tidal datums and marine boundary data, the National Boundary Demarcation. __As computed-elev_ation:: Ocean Survey has developed a comprehensive plan tidal datums must be related to a position at the to survey the almost 90,000 miles of shoreline land/water interface. For example, the mean- of the U.S., Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. low-water line at a point is the intersection of the water surface and the land at the elevation The plan is organized on a state-by-state of the mean-low-water datum. basis in a five-step sequence to secure and process tidal data. The total effort is esti- There are two basic procedures for physi- mated to cost in excess of $140 million and tally locating tidal datum intersection points. The first is standard ground survey procedures, require from 20 to 30 years to complete depending on the level of resources available. whereby stake points and monuments are physically located-along the points of intersection, using Task 1. Primary Control Tide Stations. The tidal bench marks and their descriptions. Once first step in the plan is the construction and the datum line has been demarcated on the ground, operation of 104 new primary tide stations need- it must be located and tied to appropriate land ed for data control, and upgrading of 132 marks and control points using accepted survey stations now operating. procedures. Ground survey provides the most accurate demarcation of tidal base lines, al- The primary station is a permanent structure though it is relatively slow and expensive. which houses a digital tide level recorder, a temperature recorder, salinity instruments, The second procedure is the use of aerial telemetry instruments for the National Weather photographs to produce high accuracy marine Service Disaster Warning System, and support boundary maps. Aerial photographs, using the equipment. At existing stations instruments proper filter techniques, are taken at the time would be upgraded, the structures modified, and when the actual tide level is at the elevation of bench marks established as required. the tidal datum being surveyed, using premarked control points and ground observers. The land/ Task 2. Secondary Stations. To obtain tide water line is highly visible in these photo- level data at intermediate locations between graphs. Using photogrammetric techniques, the primary stations, approximately 1,940 secondary marine boundary and inland features can be stations are required. This second task is the accurately shown. construction and operation of 1,440 new second- NOS is now making marine boundary maps of ary tide stations needed, and establishment of bench marks at 500 secondary locations as re- the Florida coast in a successful cooperative quired. Federal/State cost-sharing plan. With a repre- sentative horizontal position accuracy of f 16 Task 3. Tertiary Stations. To secure more feet, these maps provide a great amount of de- tail. To those concerned with tidal datum accurate tide level data at specific areas be- tween secondary stations, short-term levels must boundaries, these maps are extremely valuable be recorded at an estimated 8,100 locations, nTr 7R17 AlIEN I D(_M~l1 975 VIU Loll nLLLII L. ruw called tertiary stations. This task involves tidal datums based on court decisions are legal the construction and operation of 6,500 new necessities in establishing base lines for Fed- tertiary stations needed and establishment of bench marks at the 1,600 tertiary locations as eral, state, and international marine boundaries. required. As a recognized authority in determining tidal datums, surveying, and coastal mapping, Task 4. Data Processing. The total U.S. effort the NOS is accelerating its programs in these.. .. requires tide observations at approximately areas to meet the increased demands for data and 10,280 locations and processing of more than information. The accuracy of technical proce- 50,000 station/months of data. Only 2,240 loca- dures and the legal decisions involve billions tions have been occupied and the data processed. of dollars in valuable onshore land and offshore Task 4 is the processing of tidal data for the resources. Variations of only a few inches in new stations, integration of new data with his- computing datums and base line demarcation de- torical records, computation of tidal datums, termine who owns and controls large areas of and preparation of tidal bench mark description some of the most sought after submerged lands sheets.. and coastal areas of the nation. Task 5. Boundary Demarcation. With the compu- As accuracy and procedure for marine tation of local tidal datums, the next step-is boundaries and property lines become more criti- to demarcate the line where a datum elevation cal, the priority for determining tidal datums intersects the shore. Task 5 of the NOS plan is and preparing coastal maps will be forced to the production of 5,800 special coastal zone higher levels. maps, using aerial photography and aerotriangu- lation techniques to show datum intersection A key to the successful implementation of lines and land area details. A total of 70 maps the NOS program is Federal/State cooperation have been produced to this time. since the sovereign rights of states are in- volved in legal procedures and more states are STATUS OF PROGRAM developing their own legislative approach toa .. coastal boundaries. The experience in Florida Although the NOS program for Marine Boundary and New Jersey has set a pattern for other states and Tidal Datum Surveys was not formalized until to follow. At present Florida is the only state last year, NOS has been working with other Fed- with a statute on marine boundaries and survey- eral agencies and state governments for a number ing. South Carolina and California are writing of years on the subject. laws patterned after the Florida statute. One of the early surveys was conducted in NOS is willing to work with State agencies the late 1950 s to determine marine boundaries on marine boundary problems, and advise on pro- in connection with title to submerged lands along cedures and steps to be taken in formulating a the Gulf of Mex ico. Activity in the coastal program. The position of NOS is to conduct areas continued to increase. By the late 1960 s tidal datum and marine boundary surveys on a the level of conflicting and competing uses had cost/sharing basis with states, and to provide grown to a significant point, with involvement tidal datum elevation information, mapping by private owners, states, federal_agencies, and assistance, and expertise as the Federal agency submerged.land utilization. responsible for this activity. Since 1969 NOS has been working with the REFERENCES State of Florida to carry out a comprehensive cost-sharing program of determining tidal datums Brewer, R. K., Cravat, H. R.: Baseline Estab- and preparing marine boundary maps. lishment for Positioning Federal-State Bound- aries, Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Off- For the Fiscal Year 1976 the NOS Marine shore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas,- Boundary and Tidal Datum Survey Program is Play1972. operating at a level of approximately $2.4 million on a cost-sharing basis with four states- Guth, Jack E.: Coastal Boundary Mapping, Pro- South Carolina, Florida, New Jersey, and Cali- ceedings of a Symposium on Coastal Mapping, fornia. Washington, D.C., June 1972. CONCLUSION . - ._ - --L_ ~ull, Wesley V., ~itzgera~d, I. Thurlow> C. ., Brewer, R. K.. Remote Sensing for Demar- Legal and technical aspects of marine eating and Mapping Obscured Tidal Boundaries, boundaries to this point, show the critical sig- ASP/ACSM Convention, Orlando, Florida, nificance of tidal datums. The determination of October 1973. 976 DETERMINING...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, May 4–7, 1975
Paper Number: OTC-2289-MS
... limitations of many present and fu- ture projects efficiently ~nd economically. INTRODUOTION In April of 1970 at Pompano Beach, Florida I was involved in one of the first large-scale beach nour- ishment projects in which sand was pumped onto a beach from submerged bars in the open sea. The designated mm STON...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, April 30–May 2, 1972
Paper Number: OTC-1593-MS
... water at Pensacola, Florida, is approxi- mately 12 hours, and the mean range is less Special Conditions Precipita~~ The average precipitation in the eastern Gulf area is higher than the United States average. The precipitation pattern is also more erratic than for the remainder of the country...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, April 30–May 2, 1972
Paper Number: OTC-1658-MS
... America Figure 4 presents a chart similar to that of Figure 3 but limited to the particular situation that we believe will exist in Florida, which is now the world's largest phosphate rock producing area. As the figure shows, cumula- tive reserve withdrawal from the Florida fields over the next 30 years...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, May 17–20, 1969
Paper Number: OTC-1124-MS
... province is much more complex than the margin within the terrigeneous province. The shelf immediately off the mainland coast is smooth and relatively narrow. Off southern Florida the shelf is separated from its sea- ward extension, the Bahama Platform, by the Straits of Florida. Off northern Florida...

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