This paper considers the mechanisms that affect the lateral and vertical extension of a hydraulically induced fracture. These include natural mechanisms—such as contrasts in stresses, moduli, toughness, and leakoff—and those induced by leakoff and fluid heterogeneities. Treatment trends during the injection and closure are analyzed with a state-of-the-art 3D fracture model. The effect of the vertical fracture penetration on conductivity and water coning and the parameters influencing them are then quantified.

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