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Keywords: crosslinker
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Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 38 (03): 490–503.
Paper Number: SPE-214662-PA
Published: 09 August 2023
... introduced as a promising family of hydrogel materials due to the ability to absorb huge volumes of water while maintaining strong mechanical strength and high damping and flexibility properties. The clay particles are expected to act as extra crosslinking sites throughout the polymer structure...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 35 (02): 362–372.
Paper Number: SPE-193631-PA
Published: 14 May 2020
... and by determining their role in maintaining structural strength. Several PPG hydrogels were prepared by varying the concentrations of polyacrylamide and chromium triacetate [Cr(OAc) 3 ] as copolymer and crosslinker, respectively, using a central composite design. The characterization of these hydrogels...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 33 (02): 196–213.
Paper Number: SPE-186112-PA
Published: 17 August 2017
... on crosslinking reactions between polymers and crosslinkers. Breaker technologies such as oxidizers, enzymes, fluoride compounds, oxides, vitamins, and decrosslinking agents are used to break the crosslinked polymer-based gels. These materials are added as components of the initial fracturing-fluids recipe...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 32 (04): 440–448.
Paper Number: SPE-174988-PA
Published: 20 February 2017
... fracturing fluid that combines a next-generation boron crosslinker with a new hydroxypropyl guar (HPG) to be crosslinked with 40 to 60% less polymer than used in conventional borate-crosslinked fluids. For this fluid, HPG loadings in the range of 8 to 12 lbm/1,000 gal were used to produce boron-crosslinked...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 32 (02): 186–195.
Paper Number: SPE-185161-PA
Published: 03 January 2017
... was diminished significantly). Another challenge is the pressure-dependent behavior of borate-crosslinked gels, where the viscosity was found to drop significantly under high pressures. Also, in high-temperature reservoirs (>350°F), it is very challenging to design a fluid that can sustain enough viscosity...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 31 (03): 238–246.
Paper Number: SPE-179737-PA
Published: 18 August 2016
.... The gelation performance can be adjusted by changing the concentration of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), crosslinker, and ammonium salt. Over the last decades, the working behavior of a gel system in a reservoir has been evaluated simply through the gelation-performance bottle test and the effectiveness...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 31 (04): 337–350.
Paper Number: SPE-173853-PA
Published: 01 March 2016
...-molecular-weight synthetic polymer) and a crosslinker. Measurements on the gelant systems’ viscosity showed that the base sodium silicate system has a low, water-like, viscosity with a Newtonian behavior. This provides significant benefits for matrix treatment, but higher gelant viscosities may be required...
Journal Articles
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 29 (04): 243–260.
Paper Number: SPE-169552-PA
Published: 23 October 2014
... for wells at temperatures of less than 300°F (148.9°C). To minimize the damage associated with this class of polymers, the industry has attempted several approaches. These included the use of a lower polymer concentration in formulating these fluids and alteration of the crosslinker chemistry so that one...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 27 (02): 170–184.
Paper Number: SPE-140138-PA
Published: 29 March 2012
... crosslinking on the reaction rate was examined. Coreflood experiments were conducted at 250°F using two different rates of injection (2 and 10 cm 3 /min), and the core samples were imaged using a computed-tomography (CT) scan technique after each coreflood experiment. Increasing formic acid concentration...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 26 (01): 41–54.
Paper Number: SPE-142927-PA
Published: 26 January 2011
... (1.5-in. diameter and 20-in. length) at high temperatures and pressures. Propagation of the acid, polymer, and crosslinker inside the long cores was examined in detail. Samples of the core effluent were collected, and the concentrations of calcium, crosslinker, and acid were measured. Permeability...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 25 (03): 367–375.
Paper Number: SPE-121728-PA
Published: 08 July 2010
... drilling fluid formulation polymer viscosity apparent viscosity fecl 3 crosslinker ferric ion pH value live acid drilling fluids and materials Upstream Oil & Gas concentration acid SPE Production NaCl deionized water acid system in-situ-gelled acid diversion University...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 22 (02): 231–235.
Paper Number: SPE-98119-PA
Published: 19 May 2007
... production from hydrocarbon wells, with varying degrees of success. For approximately eight years, a polymer gel system based on an acrylamide/t-butyl acrylate copolymer (PAtBA) crosslinked with polyethyleneimine (PEI) has been used successfully for various water shutoff applications. This article describes...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 22 (01): 83–93.
Paper Number: SPE-86481-PA
Published: 20 February 2007
... agitation. The fluid was mixed for 1 hour. The viscosity of the linear gel was then checked with a Fann Model 35 viscometer to ensure that the polymer had hydrated fully. The pH buffer was added to the tank and mixed for 1 minute. The crosslinker was then added to the tank and mixed for 30 seconds. All...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 13 (04): 230–235.
Paper Number: SPE-52399-PA
Published: 01 November 1998
...P. C. Harris; S. J. Heath Summary This paper presents a study of hydration, crosslinking, and rheological properties of 15- to 25-lbm/1,000-gal optimized borate-crosslinked guar fluids. Hydration and crosslinking properties of fluids were measured in a new turbulent flow-loop viscometer to simulate...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 13 (01): 29–34.
Paper Number: SPE-37243-PA
Published: 01 February 1998
...R. H. Lane Summary This paper describes field experience with low- and high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) polymers crosslinked with Cr(III) carboxylate species. On the basis of that experience, the paper addresses successes and limitations in terms of downhole...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 7 (03): 275–279.
Paper Number: SPE-20077-PA
Published: 01 August 1992
...K. E. Cawiezel; J. L. Elbel Summary This paper describes a delayed-crosslink activator system for borate fracturing fluids that allows crosslinking rates to be controlled to give low friction pressure in the wellbore. Data from laboratory development, full-scale friction tests, and fracturing...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 7 (01): 29–33.
Paper Number: SPE-20639-PA
Published: 01 February 1992
... problems with RCP's. The transition-metal crosslinked fracturing fluid was separated from the RCP with a hig-hspeed centrifuge. The RCP was washed with deionized water to remove any residual fracturing fluid. The concentration of the transition metal in the fracturing gel was determined by energy...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 4 (04): 430–434.
Paper Number: SPE-17044-PA
Published: 01 November 1989
...-loop viscometer over a temperature range of 80 to 300°F [27 to 149°C]. Rapid and complete base-gel hydration required proper pH control and high mixing energy. Oil-based polymer slurries allowed rapid hydration rates sufficient to achieve performance from a crosslinked fluid prepared during...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 3 (02): 187–191.
Paper Number: SPE-13813-PA
Published: 01 May 1988
...D. W. Walser Summary Extensive field development of a new fracturing system incorporating a temperature-delayed crosslinker was undertaken over a 15-month period in south Texas. Treatments performed at depths from 7,500 to 17,100 ft [2290 to 5210 m] revealed that the new fluid has properties...

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