Hydrogen has recently gained significant attention as a sustainable energy carrier, particularly for its potential in zero-emissions sectors. Consequently, ensuring safe and efficient transportation of hydrogen is important, particularly when blended with natural gas. This study involves transient flow simulations to detect and mitigate blended hydrogen leakage in transportation pipelines.

In this study, the current state of the literature on leak detection simulation is surveyed. The findings of the most recent studies, particularly on transient simulation of leaks in natural gas and hydrogen pipes are summarized. It can be stated that accurately estimating the mass rate is the key to detecting hydrogen leaks. This is demonstrated by conducting new transient flow simulations for a natural gas pipe, without hydrogen, with 10% hydrogen, and with 30% hydrogen. Two leak sizes are tested. The relationship between the leaks and mass flow rate changes is examined with time. A decrease in the mass flow rate is a reliable indicator of a potential leak in hydrogen transportation pipelines. Furthermore, the pressure and temperature conditions play vital roles in evaluating the presence of leaks. It is observed that adding hydrogen helps the flow through the leak reach critical conditions at a lower mass rate. As a result, hydrogen helps reduce the leaked mass for a fixed leak size. In addition, hydrogen reduces the Joule-Thomson cooling characteristics of natural gas and maintains a higher temperature for the leaking pipe. The transient flow simulations highlight the key parameters for blended hydrogen leak detection in pipelines. This research underscores the importance of continuous and accurate data monitoring for effective leak detection, promoting the sustainability of hydrogen transport in our evolving energy landscape.

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