To achieve the ambition goal of net-zero carbon emission in the next few decades and develop a sustainable low carbon economy, the CO2 geological storage (CGS) is one of the indispensable components for any carbon reduction scenario. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the subsurface requires understanding the movement (injectivity and storage capacity) of the injected CO2 and ensuring that it remains contained (containment and leakage risks) in the target reservoir. Therefore, one of the most important challenges for a commercial scale CGS project is to predict the reservoir performance throughout the lifecycle of the project.

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