Natural gas is one of the important energy resources and the worldwide consumption is rapidly increasing. To satisfy such a demand of the natural gas, a number of gas fields are under development in hostile conditions such as deep seas and arctic areas. However, due to the status of current technologies and economic situations, many gas fields in offshore are stranded. The estimated stranded gas reserves are above 4,500 TCF in offshore areas. The proven technology options available to the offshore for the natural gas exploitation and transportation are extremely limited. Currently, the most popular methods of bringing the natural gas to market from distant locations are LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) and PNG (Pipelined Natural Gas) technologies. However, these technologies require expensive capital cost for infrastructure constructions and huge proved gas reserves. Thus, in many situations, they are not available for the stranded gas exploitation and transportation. There exist alternative technological options to LNG and PNG technologies that can be considered for exploiting and transporting the stranded gas in offshore. They are CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), NGH (Natural Gas Hydrate), GTL (Gas to Liquid), and GTW (Gas to Wire). In this paper, the available technologies of CNG, NGH, GTL, and GTW have been reviewed and compared to LNG and PNG technologies to derive the most economical one in selected regions such as Mediterranean, Caribbean, Arabian Seas, and Sakhalin Island.

You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.