The past decade has seen oil and gas exploration and development move into a new phase as hydrocarbon reserves are increasingly found in remote locations, with a large number in the deepwater environment. This change has produced the need to develop sub-sea based technologies that are flexible, durable and simple in the face of high capital and operating costs.

Sub-sea developments produce greater flow assurance and intervention challenges.

Solutions are needed to address the low seawater temperature conditions that lead to problems within trunklines, such as hydrate formation / plugging, wax precipitation and sand accumulation. The long distances that are involved in remote location developments limit the effectiveness of existing technologies to minimise the problems.

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