With the increasing demand in domestic energy requirement and with declining production rates from mature fields of offshore Malaysia, PETRONAS has embarked on an aggressive campaign to address the decline in rates as well as increase the reserves through proven Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) application. An immiscible Water Alternating Gas (WAG) process is found to be the most favorable EOR method due to gas supply availability, proven world-wide application, and promising results in improving injection fluid sweep efficiency and reducing residual oil saturation.

To reduce the uncertainty of EOR technical studies under low oil price, a comprehensive integrated procedure is required to study WAG performance and define key factors that impact flow efficiency under three-phase flow conditions for a more representative full-field reservoir simulation study results.

This procedure involves a detailed comprehensive parametric study of the cycle dependent hysteresis starting from extensive literature review, followed by laboratory experiments and extracting pertinent WAG parameters from coreflood history matching and finally applying these parameters in full-field reservoir simulation study. This study demonstrated that the WAG cycle dependency of relative permeability during WAG process is one of the key factors that has significant impact on WAG performance and recovery factor. This feature cannot be captured by conventional three-phase flow models used by reservoir simulators. The study indicates additional recovery factor of about 1%-2% compared to the base-case WAG model without WAG hysteresis.

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