This paper presents the results of a laboratory case study that was initiated to understand the main causes of the crude oil emulsion for an onshore oil field in Japan. The factors investigated on the influence of emulsion stability were oil and brine compositions, content of asphaltene, wax and toluene-insolubles, temperature, shear-stress, and water-cut. The results showed the emulsion was stabilized by multiple factors, indicating that multiple preventative approaches are required to sustain stable production, free of emulsion.

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