In this case study, high resolution temperature array data, acquired during a Drill Stem Test (DST), were able to identify and quantify flow behind the liner. Quantifying the flow rate behind the liner between the production zones was of significant value to the operator to reduce the uncertainty in the Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA).
The high resolution temperature array was deployed clamped to the outside of the Tubing Conveyed Perforating (TCP) guns, which were used to selectively perforate multiple zones. Using wireless acoustic technology the temperature data were transmitted to surface to enable real time feedback during the DST. A novel thermal heat exchange model was built that could take advantage of the high resolution temperature array data acquired during the entire test. The results of the model were compared to the real data to validate the results and provide accurate flow rate measurements of the flow behind the liner in real time during the test. A sensitivity study on the various model input parameters was also carried out to reduce the uncertainty in the thermal model, the results of which are detailed within the paper. Being able to quantify the flow behind the liner allowed the operator to adjust their PTA results and provided a more robust reservoir model.
Typical thermal models in the industry are unable to quantify flow behind the liner in this environment. A new thermal model had to be developed that could take into account the complex heat transfer processes and take advantage of the high resolution thermal array data acquired during the DST. Despite the challenging wellbore environment during the test, the high resolution temperature data were used to provide a robust zonal flow confirmation and rate allocation during the flow periods.
Whilst Distributed Temperature Systems (DTS) are gaining popularity in the oil and gas industry, typically the current technology does not provide the high resolution required to be able to quantify flow behind the casing. This new model, when combined with high resolution thermal array data, has wide ranging applications not only during the DST but also in long term completions where monitoring well integrity is a real industry challenge.