Successful carbonate matrix acidizing treatments require addressing pay rock mineralogy, produced fluid flow profile, selection of the best stimulation fluids, and correct placement of these fluids. A unique method of acid and diverter fluid efficiency calibration using field experimental data for treatment modelling and optimization has been implemented successfully in several mid-temperature reservoirs, including giant oil fields in Kazakhstan. Application of the technique led to positive results.
Matrix stimulation is selected as the primary method for raising production from many carbonate reservoirs in the region because of the reservoir features. Coreflood testing conducted with candidate acid systems for selection and optimization of treatment fluid formulations and design schedules did not always lead to the desired post-stimulation skin levels, zone coverage, and production results. Hence, large-scale calibration of the acid parameters to the actual reservoir conditions was attempted. Treatment modelling in an advanced matrix acidizing software considered calibration factors derived from field tests. Thereafter, the optimized designs were implemented in the same reservoirs to improve the incremental production.
Whenever possible, coreflood testing was carried out as the first step to determine the pore-volume to breakthrough parameters for the candidate acid systems. As the second step, these laboratory-derived data were used for modelling of the offset well stimulation design. Third, the actual treatment downhole pressure was matched with the simulated pressure by means of acid efficiency calibration in the matrix stimulation software. These calibrated parameters were then used for simulation of the following treatments in the same formation in attempt to model the expected reservoir placement and zone coverage more accurately and realistically to maximize the treatment effect. Post-stimulation fluid flow profile surveys have validated the optimized models and applicability of the methodology for improving incremental well productivity in the subject reservoirs.
The stimulation approach uses a unique technique of acid efficiency calibration using field experimental data. It requires good knowledge of reservoir lithology and permeability and porosity profiles in the target zones. The initial skin is calibrated using pretreatment production data. Thereafter, acid efficiency is calibrated based on matching the actual stimulation job pressures.