CO2 sequestration is a process for eternity with a possibility of zero-degree failure. Monitoring, Measurement and Verification (MMV) planning of CO2 sequestration is crucial along with geological site selection, transportation and injection process. Several geological formations have been evaluated in the past for potential storage site which divulges the containment capacity of identified large, depleted gas reservoirs as well as long term conformance.

Offshore environment makes MMV plan challenging and demands rigorous integration of monitoring technologies to optimize project economic and involved logistics. The role of MMV is critical for sustainability of the CO2 storage project as it ensures that injected CO2 in the reservoir is intact and safely stored for hundreds of years post-injection. Field specific MMV technologies for CO2 plume migration with proactive approach were identified after exercising pre-defined screening criteria.

Marine CO2 dispersion study is carried out to confirm the impact of any potential leakage along existing wells and faults, and to understand the CO2 behavior in marine environment in the event of leakage. Study incorporates integration of G&G subsurface and Meta-Ocean & Environment data along with other leakage character information. Multi-Fiber Optic Sensors System (M-FOSS) to be installed in injector wells for monitoring well & reservoir integrity, overburden integrity and monitoring of early CO2 plume migration by acquiring & analyzing the distributed sensing data (DTS/DPS/DAS/DSS).

Based on 3D couple modeling, a maximum injection rate of approximately 200 MMscfd of permeate stream produced from a high CO2 contaminated gas field can be achieved. Injectivity studies indicate that over 100 MMSCFD of CO2 injection rates into depleted gas reservoir is possible from a single injector. Injectivity results are integrated with dynamic simulation to determine number and location of injector wells. 3D DAS-VSP simulation results show that a subsurface coverage of approximately 3 km2 per well is achievable, which along with simulated CO2 plume extent help to determine the number of wells required to get maximum monitoring coverage for the MMV planning. As planned injector wells are field centric and storage site area is large, DAS-VSP find limited coverage to monitor the CO2 plume. To overcome this challenge, requirement of surface seismic acquisition survey is recommended for full field monitoring.

An integrated MMV plan is designed for cost-effective long-term offshore monitoring of CO2 plume migration. The present study discusses the impacting parameters which make the whole process environmentally sustainable, economically viable and adhering to national and international regulations.

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