The paper discusses on reservoir souring study in a deep water subsea green field as a result of seawater injection. The objectives are to determine likelihood, timing of reservoir souring to happen and amount of expected produced H2S. Offshore deep water development involves considerable CAPEX investment hence reservoir souring requires to be assessed in order to make techno-commercial judgement involving formulating the field development plan, upfront identification of prevention & mitigation strategy, operating strategy and project economics.
The study started by performing data gathering involving among others field information, PVT, mineralogy, water analysis data, and production and injection profile. Subsequently, 2D reservoir modelling and 3D reservoir modelling was built. Sensitivities cases were run by varying the injection rate, nutrient loading, rock abstraction capacity, sulphate content, injection temperature and bacteria growth time. This is followed by sensitivity analyses for mitigation options using biocide injection, nitrate injection, H2S scavenging and sulphate removal in the field. Based on the results obtained, prevention and mitigation strategy has been evaluated and ranked followed by comparison with nearby analogue fields.
The modelling results of all scenarios indicate that reservoir souring will happen in the field and beyond HSE safety limit. For some scenarios, the H2S partial pressure exceeds NACE limit before end of field life, hence requiring team to re-evaluate material selection options. Water injection rate and rock abstraction capacity have the largest impact to the H2S breakthrough time. Sensitivity analyses for mitigation options have been conducted based on consideration of having options of biocide injection, nitrate injection, H2S scavenging and sulphate removal in the field. Biocide injection does not have considerable effects on H2S level. Nitrate injection only partially reduces H2S generation mainly due to high nutrient content in the reservoir and high sulphate content in the injected seawater. On the other hand, sulphate removal analyses indicate its effectiveness in preventing reservoir from becoming sour. The outcome of the study is then incorporated in the field development plan and operating strategy.
The paper highlighted comprehensive step by step approach to understand reservoir souring potential in a deep water development via 2D and 3D modelling approach. This can be included as an important procedure in field development especially involving high CAPEX development whereby critical decision making need to be made upfront. In addition, benchmarking, and learnings from nearby deep water fields help to identify best preventive and remedial option for reservoir souring.