This paper reviews waterflood management practices, highlighting key industry papers. It is intended to move readers up the "learning curve" and provide a road map for implementing and operating a successful waterflood project. It will assist reservoir engineers, production-operations engineers, and development geologists who are involved in or are contemplating waterflood operations.
The paper addresses operating philosophy, well spacing (density), pattern development (selection), completions, injection water, and surveillance. Although these factors are presented from a west Texas perspective, they are applicable to reservoirs having a high degree of vertical and areal heterogeneity.
In addition to a brief history of waterflooding, the paper reflects "lessons learned" through years of experience in waterflooding and CO2 flooding carbonate reservoirs, principally in west Texas. This experience has been gained through work in both a major and a large independent oil company, through interfacing with outside operators of all sizes, and through consulting for small, independent oil companies.