Effective technology application is increasingly important as hydrocarbon resources become more difficult to locate and produce. This approach is illustrated by recent developments in materials and corrosion technology that are applicable throughout the gas production chain. A large proportion of upstream project expenditures are related either to direct procurement costs or fabrication. A wide range of materials is used, although the bulk is represented by specific grades of carbon steel. In addition, the evolving nature of the materials challenges requires the development and specification of materials with improved properties to meet continually higher performance demands.

Qualification testing of these materials, including testing in accurately simulated service conditions coupled with effective specifications and quality assurance is key to achieving the required integrity. Technology developments discussed include: corrosion control to enable full well stream, subsea wet gas pipelines, higher-strength steel for gas transmission pipelines and cryogenic line pipe using nickel-based alloys for subsea LNG transfer. The examples described highlight the important contribution of materials and corrosion technologies to enabling high integrity, cost effective gas field developments.

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