The petroleum industry is one of the few industries that deal with high-pressure high-temperature conditions involving complex fluid behavior, rock and fluid interactions, and flow dynamics in the subsurface. Moreover, petroleum industry has the critical domain expertise to reach and manage deep reservoirs both onshore and offshore. These capabilities and know-how put petroleum industry at the forefront to capture, utilize, and store carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the subsurface. The objective of this paper is to review the existing body of literature and outline the most prominent methods or options to manage carbon dioxide (CO2) and other gases.

We review the rigorous efforts presented in the literature to implement carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) projects, in the context of technological challenges, capacities, and perspectives. We categorize the options into three groups: 1. Currently available technologies; 2. Near-future technology; 3. Long term technology. Categories (2) and (3) are discussed in terms of cost and scale-up, where both can be an impediment for wide-scale deployment. Many such options are functions of the energy price and as well as local incentives. Therefore, while focusing on the technical aspect we also discuss some of the enabling factors for its application. Some of the elements of (2) are also related to source-sink match yet direct air capture is being highlighted as a remedy of this issue while the costs are still an impediment for widespread use. We examine methods that use carbon dioxide and other gases to improve the recovery of hydrocarbons and simultaneously store concentrated CO2 in the subsurface. Our main conclusion in this review paper is that the petroleum industry has all of the tools and expertise to implement and adopt CCUS projects and to contribute to the sustainable future from a technological perspective.

We show that there are many well-established methods in the petroleum industry that can be used directly for CCUS purposes. The petroleum industry may be regarded as a contributor to carbon and other gas emissions, however, in this paper we present the reverse concept that the petroleum industry has all the necessary tools and expertise to capture, utilize, and store carbon gases. The perspective presented in this paper will help petroleum industry to recognize its own strengths with the goal to reduce emissions not only within petroleum industry but also to lead carbon emission reduction efforts from other industries.

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