The geothermal energy is one of the most promising sources of electricity on the planet; it is available almost anywhere on the continents and resources are inexhaustible. The realization of these possibilities requires solving the problems of deep wells (6-10 km) construction, when the lower horizons are practically impermeable crystalline basement rocks. For effective use of the Earth's heat, bottomhole temperatures must be within 200-300°C. World experience of such deep wells construction is very limited, some examples are given in this work.
Known schemes of geothermal energy application requires at least two wells construction - for cold fluid injection and superheated fluid production. The rock - circulating fluid heat exchange in the bottomhole requires drilling of inclined, horizontal, or multi-lateral boreholes and hydraulic fracturing application. Such technologies are widely used in the oil and gas fields, but not in crystalline rocks. The article presents an analysis of the prospects for the geothermal wells construction efficiency increasing by using modern directional drilling systems, drilling with casing, technologies for complications eliminating. The possibilities of using alternative hard rock drilling methods by enhancing the standard formation destruction with drill bits are discussed. These are hydraulic hammers, high-pressure abrasive and fluid jets, laser drilling. A fundamentally new plasma drilling technology is considered. The most serious limitation of alternative drilling prospects is the need of additional "supply lines" to the bottom: high-pressure fluid; electricity; a plasma forming agent, etc. In this regard, options are being considered for the development of continuous drill strings such as coiled tubing, umbilical, flexible composite systems like subsea pipelines. Some of technological solutions for deep geothermal wells construction, and implementation of petrothermal energy schemes for potential projects are proposed.
The paper provides an idea of the geothermal well construction technologies, which can ensure the implementation of advanced geo-energy schemes. The problems of geothermal engineering and possible solutions to overcome them, which will contribute to the development of geothermal energy, as the most effective option for decarbonization, are indicated.