Cement Evaluation Logs are generally used to evaluate the quality of the cement sheath behind the casing or liner before a well test or production operation is performed in the well. In many countries, regulatory authorities require that cement evaluation logs be done in every well after cementing operations to investigate the presence and quality of the cement sheath. The main objective of the cement evaluation process is to evaluate the hydraulic isolation of the cement sheath. The main principle of cement bond log (CBL) tools is to send an acoustic signal inside the casing and measuring the acoustic impedance of the cement between the casing and the formation. The interpretation and processing of these measurements are sometimes complicated and difficult to understand because CBL can be affected by the downhole conditions and the input parameters for processing. Therefore, it is important to understand how the log is processed before planning for any remedial action based on the apparently poor cement quality obtained from the log. Also, there are some challenges such as lightweight cement, the presence of micro-annulus, and eccentricity of the tool itself may affect the measurement and the relating remedial action to solve the problem.
Conventional cement evaluation tools are useful in most scenarios, but in more challenging operations, there is a pressing need for more advanced cement evaluation techniques to increase the confidence of the measurements for the evaluation of wellbore integrity. This paper demonstrates ultrasonic cement evaluation tools principles and examples for evaluating the quality of the cement bond. Also, the most common challenges and conditions which affect the sonic signal and lead to falsely indication of effective cement integrity. The processed case studies highlight the confidence of the cement isolation identified using these tools and evaluation techniques and their impact on the upcoming remedy actions.