Without the use of fossil fuels, a large contribution to global development would certainly suffer. However, recent scientific developments and perspectives have made it possible to provide the required energy without carbon production, using renewable sources. While renewable energy sources may be a solution to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, there are still many problems in this development path. Therefore, it is necessary to devise long-term storage to balance the intermittent supply and demand for this new technology. Hydrogen (H2) can be proposed as a suitable energy to achieve goals and meet the growing global energy demand. However, the successful implementation of a large-scale hydrogen-based economy requires large-scale storage. Therefore, in this research, the geomechanics of storage for H2 from methane decomposition and the works of the past in this field will be analyzed and reviewed, and scientific cases will be reported to do this.
In recent years, renewable energy has been seriously discussed to reduce environmental pollution. According to the road map presented by the European Union, 20% of the total energy in 2020 in this continent should be provided by renewable energies. However, renewable energies are variable and unpredictable. In addition, due to the many fluctuations that renewable energies have, energy storage is the most basic task to equalize production power and consumption. Hydrogen has long been discussed as one of the large-scale renewable energies (Ebrahimiyekta 2017).
In addition, due to the growing need of the world to transition to a low-carbon economy and achieve net zero emissions by 2050, the demand for hydrogen production is expected to increase globally. Global demand for hydrogen is expected to reach $12 trillion by 2050. Today, there are many proposed alternative technologies for hydrogen production (Natural Resources 2021).
In terms of technological readiness, hydrogen production from natural gas is nothing new. Steam methane reforming (SMR) is a mature technology that has been used for decades to produce hydrogen. This technology uses natural gas and steam to produce gray hydrogen and is responsible for 48% of the hydrogen produced globally (International Energy 2005). SMR can handle large capacities in the range of 130,000-300,000 tons per year and these capacities are commercially available (Carl & George 2005). As mentioned, the production of hydrogen is almost a conventional process, but maintaining the stability of production and its storage process is perhaps considered the most important part of the process.