Extended Abstract

In recent decades, there have been more and more deep hard rock projects (rock projects with buried depth exceeding 1000m or in-situ stress dominated by horizontal tectonic stress and maximum principal stress greater than 20MPa, rock uniaxial saturated compressive strength greater than 60MPa) in the fields of mining, traffic tunnel, underground powerhouse and diversion tunnel of water conservancy and hydropower, energy development such as shale oil and gas and geothermal, underground space utilization and underground physics laboratory. Most of these projects occur in extremely complex engineering geological environments such as high ground stress and strong tectonic activities, and the engineering disturbances are often very violent (large section, large volume, drilling and blasting method, TBM excavation, etc.). Geological disasters such as hard rock fracturing (deep cracking, time-dependent fracturing), rock spalling, large deformation, large-scale collapse, rockburst and so on caused by engineering excavation occur frequently, causing serious casualties, equipment damage and construction period delay. Its failure characteristics are obviously different from those of shallow engineering, which are dominated by surface deformation and structural failure of surrounding rock, mainly manifested as internal fracturing and energy releasing of surrounding rock, which pose a great challenge to the research of rock mechanical characteristics and catastrophe mechanism cognition, prediction and analysis theory, rock engineering design and disaster prevention and control.

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